Biology and Related Fields

Biomedical Engineering

What is Biomedical Engineering ?

Artificial intelligence, neural networks, lasers, optical fibre systems, x-ray diagnosis … all this and many more technical innovations like these come under the purview of Biomedical Engineering. Biomedical Engineering is a discipline concerned with the development and manufacture of prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices, drugs and other therapies. It is more concerned with biological, safety and regulatory issues than other forms of engineering. It may be defined as “the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field”.

Biomedical Engineering is a highly interdisciplinary and upcoming field of technology. Being an integrating medium for two dynamic professions – Medicine and Engineering, this discipline has the broad objective of assisting in the struggle against illness and disease by providing tools and techniques for research, diagnosis and treatment. It combines engineering expertise with medical needs for the enhancement of health care. It is a branch of engineering in which knowledge and skills are developed and applied to design and solve problems in biology and medicine. Biomedical Engineers may be called upon to design instruments and devices, to bring together...

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Genetics Law

Genetic engineering is the largest food experiment in the history of the world. We are all the guinea pigs.

There are about 40 varieties of genetically engineered crop approved for marketing in the U.S. As a result, 60-70% of the foods on your grocery shelves contain genetically engineered (GE) components.

Genetically engineered foods contain substances that have never been a part of the human food supply. They are not subjected to rigorous pre-market safety testing. And THEY ARE NOT LABELED.

Is genetic engineering safe for you and your family? Safe for the environment? Safe for the future of mankind? No long-term studies have been done. No one can answer these questions.

Do you want out of the experiment? push food safety to the forefront of our national public awareness.

Whether and how genetic information should be used in the criminal justice system is a concern. Do we know enough yet about DNA fingerprinting, for example, to allow its use as evidence in courts of law? Beyond privacy and legal...

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Marine Biology

What is Marine Biology ?

Do you want to share the wonders of the ocean realm with fascinating facts and captivating photos of marine life, which will help spread awareness about the urgent need for marine conservation ? Are you committed to the exploration of the oceans and conservation of marine life ? Do you enjoy studying Botany and Zoology and would like to undertake indepth study of a specialised field like Marine Biology ? Then read ahead …..

The ocean gives us life. It gives us oxygen, the rain, food, excitement, wonder, and mystery. The ocean buffers the weather and helpsregulate global temperature, manages vast amounts of our pollutants, contains all kinds of amazing creatures, and supports all life on our planet. However the ocean is now beginning to be understood. Marine conservation efforts are outnumbered by the problems.

Marine Biology is the scientific study of animals, plants and other organisms that live in the ocean. About 71% of the surface of this planet is covered by salt water. Since life exists throughout this immense volume, the oceans constitute...

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Chemical Biology

What is Chemical Biology ?

The most exciting and vibrant areas of research often lie at the interfaces between disciplines that have traditionally been separate. Chemical biology is a scientific discipline at the interface of the life sciences and the physical sciences. It involves the application of chemical techniques and tools, often compounds produced through synthetic Chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems.

Chemical biology differs from the more traditional disciplines of Chemistry and Biology in its emphasis on integrating a wider series of experimental techniques, ranging from synthetic organic Chemistry, to Biochemistry, to structural, molecular, and cellular biology. Chemical biology cuts across a series of disciplines and uses aspects of them together to address complex problems in Biology and medicine.

One area in which Chemical biology will have a critical impact is drug discovery. Understanding how biological pathways work and more importantly how to manipulate them, will allow researchers to design molecules that can prevent, treat or cure diseases. Because cancer arises from a series of incorrect or incoherent messages between genes, this field is uniquely capable...

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What is Paleontology?

Researchers announced that they’ve unearthed a 365-million-year-old fossil limb bone of an ancient tetrapod (four-limbed, backboned animal) in Pennsylvania. Scientists say the find, revealed during road construction, will help shed light on how ancient animals evolved limbs from fins.


Argentine paleontologists have discovered a 13-foot (4-meter) plant-eating dinosaur with a long neck and small head that roamed the southern tip of South America about 70 million years ago.


Paleontology is the branch of biology that studies the forms of life that existed in former geologic periods, mainly by studying fossils. It is the study of the history of life on earth, as reflected in the fossil record. Fossils are the remains or traces of organisms (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and other single-celled living things) that lived in the geological past and are preserved in the crust of the earth. They are the only record of ancient life on earth and of the cycles of evolution and extinction. Fossils of ancient man and the animals...

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Neuro Sciences

What is Neuro Sciences ?

Think of Isaac Newton getting hit on the head with an apple or Alexander Graham Bell inventing the telephone. While these creative or “Aha!” moments often are associated with scientific discoveries and inventions, most people occasionally feel the thrill of insight when a solution that had eluded them suddenly becomes obvious. But what is really going on in the brain when the light bulb goes off? This occurs when a striking increase in neural activity happens in a specific area of the right hemisphere, according to a recent study by a team of cognitive neuroscientists.

The breadth of subject areas that fall into the classification of Neuroscience is possibly the widest in the biomedical sciences. Neuroscience is a field of study which deals with the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology and pathology of the nervous system. The study of behavior and learning is also a division of neuroscience. The goal is to illuminate the biological principles that form the very essence of conscious life: sensory perception, physical movement, memory, emotion, and communication.

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Molecular Biology

What is Molecular Biology ?

Are you fascinated by the science of living things? Would you like doing experiments with living cells? Do you have the patience to work on something that may take two or three days, or even longer, for an experiment? Would you be composed if the expected results do not show up after repeated experiments? Do you like reading the latest scientific books and journals? Do you feel comfortable being in a field where you may discover something and become rich and famous after some years; or that your research for 10 years may not yield anything fruitful? Are you a good researcher: creative and inquisitive, with the ability to look beyond a set of statistics to discover something meaningful? If your answer is ‘yes’ to most of these questions, you will be happy in the field of molecular biology.


Molecular biology is the basic science that seeks an understanding of life processes in terms of the properties and functions of molecules that make up living cells. The scope of questions addressed in molecular...

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What is Microbiology ?

Ali S. Khan is a field epidemiologist, or disease detective. He travels to remote places all over the world where mysterious outbreaks of disease are occurring. His job is to try to figure out what “rogue” microbe is causing the disease and to help people figure out how to avoid and treat these infections. He has grappled with some of the scariest, deadliest viruses in the world including Ebola and Hantavirus. He has worked in war zones, jungles and deserts. Avian bird flu, HIV/ AIDS, Mad Cow disease, enzymes, genes etc. come under the ambit of Microbiologists. If you are interested in the study of living organisms which are very small in size (microscopic), then this is the field for you.


Microbiology is a Life Science. It involves the study of microscopic living organisms belonging to the plant and animal kingdom in the lower  phyler such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and parasite. The term was introduced by the French chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-95), who demonstrated that fermentation was caused by the growth of...

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What is Genetics ?

We have heard of designer apparel but this is also the age of designer seeds!

Gene technology is a term that refers to a whole range of techniques for genetic investigation, analysis and change that depend on the direct manipulation of DNA, the material substance of heredity. DNA is the blueprint for the individuality of an organism. The organism relies upon the information stored in its DNA for the management of every biochemical process. The life, growth and unique features of the organism depend on its DNA. The segments of DNA which have been associated with specific features or functions of an organism are called genes.

Genetic engineering is performed by modifying an organism’s own DNA or introducing new DNA to perform desired functions. Gene technology is already providing new ways of preventing, treating and curing human and animal diseases; it is helping farmers improve agricultural production with less impact on the environment; and in the near future, it will allow better food products to be available to consumers at reduced cost.

Modern medicine and surgery have made great strides in treating patients with genetic diseases. Scientists are now exploring...

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Fisheries & Aquaculture

What is Fisheries & Aquaculture ?

Disease and health management of aquatic animals, improved feed formulation,  shell fish technology, aquatic environmental quality management, Biotechnology applications in the area of brood stock development, germ plasm conservation, pro-biotics, bio-remediation and bio-processing … if you are interested in these activities, then fisheries and aquaculture is the field for you.

Aquaculture is the science, art, and business of cultivating marine or freshwater food fish or shellfish, such as oysters, clams, salmon, and trout, under controlled conditions. It is commonly termed ‘fish farming’, but broadly refers to commercial growing of marine (mariculture) or freshwater animals and aquatic plants.

Fisheries and aquaculture is the only sector that offers cheap and good animal protein, particularly to the economically weaker sections of society. It serves as a means to ensuring national food security and is also a major contributor of foreign exchange earnings for several countries including India. The Fisheries industry contributes further to diversification and strengthening of the regional and national economy through construction of fishing harbours, boat building, fish processing etc.

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What is Botany ?

Botany is the study of all aspects of plant life. It provides information regarding the general description of plants, the various methods of cultivation, such as indoor or outdoor planting, soil and temperature requirements, pruning, and other important details, the means of propagation (seeds, cuttings, division, etc.), and the different varieties and hybrids.

What do I have to do ?

This science investigates the internal and external structures of all kinds of plants – from the simplest to the most complex forms ; their diverse functions specially with regard to the manufacture of food and modes of respiration; various kinds of movement exhibited by them; their modes of reproduction; their adaptation to the diverse conditions of their environment; their distribution in space and time; their life histories; their classification into natural groups; and the different methods that can be adopted to improve plants in the direction of better quality and higher yield, and even to produce new types of plant species or varieties for benefit and use by mankind.

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What is Biophysics ?

If you are curious about biological processes and enjoy unraveling complex problems, designing experiments or using computers to analyse situations in real life, then you will find many exciting opportunities in Biophysics.

For example, Biophysics studies the changes of polarity in the microtubules of Paramecium, or the transference of energy from one to another molecule of the complex molecular engine known as ATP synthase, or the mechanics of a human skeleton, or the dynamics of fluids of a grasshopper, etc. One example is studying the physical systems of tissue molecules in humans to determine their biological function. Another example is studying the kinetic energy in a molecule and its relationship to protein structure in animals.

Biophysics is that branch of knowledge that applies the principles of Physics and Chemistry and the methods of mathematical analysis and computer modeling to understand how biological systems work.

Biophysics is a molecular science. It seeks to explain biological function in terms of the molecular structures and properties of specific molecules. The size of these molecules varies dramatically...

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What is Biomimetrics ?

“How do we act on the fact that we are more ignorant than knowledgeable?  Embrace the arrangements that have shaken down in the long evolutionary process and try to mimic them, ever mindful that human cleverness must remain subordinate to nature’s wisdom.” Wes Jackson, director of The Land Institute.

The new scientific discipline of biomimicry (also known as biomimetrics) is gaining a lot of attention. It can be defined as ‘taking ideas from nature and implementing them in another technology such as engineering, design or computing’. This emerging science seeks sustainable solutions by mimicking nature’s designs and processes (e.g., solar cells that mimic leaves, agriculture that looks like a prairie, business that runs like a redwood forest).

The story of Velcro is an often-told but classic example of biomimicry and biomimetrics. As anyone who has hiked through fields of weeds can tell you, burrs have a tendency to stick to your clothing or hair. In 1948, a Swiss engineer (George de Mestral) used the cocklebur’s adhesive properties...

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Biometrics has been hailed as one of the top 10 emerging technologies that will change the world. It is the technique of studying physical characteristics of a person such as finger prints, hand geometry, eye structure or voice pattern. The term is derived from the Greek words “bios” for life and “metron” for measure. Biometric methods of identification work by measuring unique human characteristics as a way to confirm identity.  Biometrics are a more secure form of authentication than typing passwords or even using smart cards, which can be stolen.

Iris-pattern and retina-pattern authentication methods are already employed in some international airports and bank automatic teller machines. Voice waveform recognition, a method of verification that has been used for many years with tape recordings in telephone wiretaps, is now being used for access to proprietary databanks in research facilities. Facial-recognition technology has been used by law enforcement to pick out individuals in large crowds with considerable reliability. Hand geometry is being used in industry to provide physical access to buildings, as well as in visa granting formalities. Earlobe geometry has been used to disprove the...

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What is Bioinformatics ?

In the last few decades, advances in molecular biology and the equipment available for research in this field have allowed the increasingly rapid sequencing of large portions of the genomes of several species. In fact, several bacterial genomes, as well as those of some simple eukaryotes (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been sequenced in full. The Human Genome Project, designed to sequence all 24 of the human chromosomes, is also progressing. Popular sequence databases, such as GenBank and EMBL, have been growing at exponential rates. This deluge of information has necessitated the careful storage, organization and indexing of sequence information. Information science has been applied to biology to produce the field called Bioinformatics.

Bioinformatics is the science of informatics as applied to biological research. Informatics is the management and analysis of data using advanced computing techniques. Bioinformatics is particularly important as an adjunct to genomics research, because of the large amount of complex data this research generates. Thus, it is a field of science in which biology, computer science, and information technology merge into a single discipline.

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What is Biochemistry ?

After gene mapping, watch out for the next quantum leap in bio sciences – protein mapping.

The disciplines of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have never been more relevant to the furtherance of our fundamental knowledge and ability to exploit biological systems than in  the ‘post-genomic’ era.


–         From the structural biology of proteins and enzymes to the mechanism of amphibian limb regeneration;
–         from the regulation of transcription of genes involved in drug metabolism to the uncovering of gene function in Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
–         from understanding the signaling of insulin receptors to the computer analysis of whole genomes sequences,

Biochemistry provides an exciting platform on which to realise the potential of these important goals.
If you have a curiosity about the living world and want to understand what makes it all work;  if you enjoy Chemistry and its application to Biology, and want to...

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